Pulmonary Exercise Testing Should Be Goal Oriented

Pulmonary Exercise Testing Should Be Goal Oriented

Pulmonary Exercise Testing Should Be Goal Oriented

          Performance testing can take on many different looks depending on what you are wanting to measure. For example, if you are looking to improve cardiorespiratory efficiency, VO2max testing is typically used. If you are looking to measure speed, you may use a field test such as a 10yrd dash. Either way you look at it something needs to be measured in order to see if there is any improvement.

            Baseline performance testing should be an important element when managing exercise capacity and exercise tolerance in youth and adults with pulmonary conditions. Performance testing provides the ability to provide in-depth information through quantifiable data to components of an individual’s exercise capabilities. Testing creates a foundational platform to develop a multistage exercise training program to ensure the highest quality of care is being used to guide the training program.

            Performance testing is not obsolete in the pulmonary world and, in some form or fashion, is used in inpatient care and pulmonary rehab. The 6-Minute Walk Test, 3-Minute Step Test, and Shuttle Test have been used as gold standard measurements when cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) isn’t available. Another more commonly used form of measurement in the exercise world is the use of qualitative measures, like the Borg Scale or Rate of Perceived Exertion scale (RPE). These qualitative measurements provide us with information about how a person is/was feeling during/after the workout. These subjective scales are great for understanding the emotional state of the person. Nonetheless, the subjective feedback doesn’t necessarily align with what is intrinsically occurring with the cardiorespiratory system or the musculoskeletal system when training is actually going on. There is an unclear theory about the body having a “central governor” (coined by Tim Noakes) that regulates performance outputs. These outputs are regulated by the brain and how the perception of training, or how an individual feels, plays an important role in how much performance the human body will give. A great example is someone during the last leg of a race. When you are on the home stretch of a run, it feels as if you have been running for what seems like forever and your body is aching, your feet are hurting, joints screaming and you just want to finish, but suddenly you see the finish line with people cheering and out of nowhere, you get a sudden burst of energy and your off! You’re sprinting through the finish line, then finally collapsing into your friend’s or family member’s arms after you’ve conquered your quest to finish the race. The question is; where did that energy come from? You were exhausted, your legs were giving out, and then all of a sudden you were sprinting as if you were in the Olympics chasing down Usain Bolt.

            Perception is not necessarily reality and the subjective feedback of the client who is training is very important in understanding the overall picture of how well training is going, yet it only sheds light on the acute emotional state of what exercise is doing for the individual. The mental component impacts to training is big and clients should feel great after their workout, but having a client feeling great shouldn’t be the only standard exercise professionals hold their exercise programing standards to.

             Research has shown that structured exercise programs have a positive impact on the lifespan of children and adults with pulmonary conditions (Hebestreit, 2010). Physical fitness has been associated with decreased hospital visits in pulmonary population (Spruit, 2016). This means there is an opportunity for exercise professionals who specialize in pulmonary conditions to help increase quality of life and improve the overall health in individuals fighting pulmonary conditions through exercise prescription. Performance testing allows the exercise specialist a common ground to discuss their goal and how to obtain those goes through specific types of exercise training. It can build transparency and help educate the individual on types of training that can be beneficial for their health. Performance testing can also lead to advancing how exercise training is prescribed in the pulmonary community. Trial and error is the only way to advance exercise science and conducting simple exercise test over a period of time can give great insight to the impact exercise has on underlying health issues.

            On the other hand, time and money can play a big factor in what exercise test are actually done. Exercise professionals can’t just take every individual through every fitness test that is out there and nor should they. Performance testing should mirror what the individual’s goals are. For example, you wouldn’t put an athlete getting ready for the Iron Man through a 10yrd dash field test to gather data on how to improve aerobic capacity 4-weeks before the event. The testing doesn’t line up with the goal and understanding this can help find the right test.

 

     References

 

Hebestreit, H., Kieser, S., Junge, S., Ballmann, M., Hebestreit, A., Schindler, C., & Kriemler, S. (2010). Long-term effects of a partially supervised conditioning program in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, 578-583.

 

Spruit, M. A., Burtin, C., De Boever, P., Langer, D., Vogiatzis, I., Wouters, E. F., & Franssen, F. M. (2016). COPD and exercise: does it make a difference? Breathe 12(2).

 

 

 

For more exercises content check out our YouTube Channel: Cystic Fibrosis Fitness Institute 

 

 

 

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Your Exercise Training Should Fit Your Goal

Your Exercise Training Should Fit Your Goal

Your Exercise Training Should Fit Your Goal

          There are many approaches to exercise.; a buffet of options to pick from these days. You have the option of focusing on mobility and range of motion by participating in yoga classes. You can test your exercise capacity by joining a cycling class or by running outside. You can burn off stress and dial up your competitive nature with strength training. Either way you look at it, you have many options to choose from. Options are great but having too many exercise options can cause frustration and lead to injury down the road. Not knowing what your personal goals are, or if the exercise routine or program you’re doing lines up with your goals, can start to cause havoc on your mind and body over time. It is like a roller coaster that never ends.

            Over the year, exercise science and exercise application research have shown that there needs to be a balance of different types of modes of training based on an individual’s workout. Mode can include, but is not limited to, strength training, endurance training, and mobility training. Now, it is important to understand that the modes listed are broad modes of training and an individual’s goals will shape what these will look like. For example, an elite football player will partake in strength training like a body builder does, but the format of training (frequency, duration, intensity, volume) will align for football and not a body building competition. Both individuals need strength training and endurance training but the percentage at which they need one versus the other will change based on the individual, their environment, and their goals.

           We can take it even further by looking at position of player in football, such as a running back versus an offense tackle. Both positions have the same goal of winning the Super Bowl however, specific variables will start to creep in. The biggest is the position at which they play and their genetic make-up. The average offense of tackle is 6 feet 5 inches and a 314lbs.  The average running back is 6 feet and 215lbs. These players play on the same team and have the same team goal, yet their roles on the team and their personal goals and skillsets will alter their training program.

            If the goal is to build strength, then you must spend a higher percentage of time building in the weight room or in your home gym pushing the limits of your strength. If the goal is to improve cardiovascular endurance, you must spend time working on endurance. If the goal is to improve flexibility, then you need to spend more time allocated to mobility training. With that being said there are no absolutes in training and you can’t live on the extreme sides of one mode of training unless you are willing to suffer the injuries, turmoil, and the greatness that comes with it.  For example, if you decide you want to improve your endurance and you increase your jogging, running, or sprinting sessions and you don’t supplement some form of strength and mobility training into your routine, than there will be a break down in musculoskeletal tissue strength causing tightness, joint pain, which could become a limiting factor in improving overall capacity. The reason behind this is jogging, running, and sprinting require a certain amount of muscle strength and endurance to not only push your joints in the directions you want to go, but they aid in force absorption from every foot contact on the surfaces you decide to run on (surfaces play a big part in how much force is applied to the joints such as the knees, ankles, and hips). When the volume of stress (e.g., runs per week, time running, and the frequency of running per week) is high or increases over time, so will the amount of muscular strength/endurance needed. Which means if you focus on just endurance or just body weight strength training, you will only get so far with your endurance training before you start to have tightness and joint problems.

            If you looked at all forms of exercise, you will see that every task or goal requires a certain percentage of strength, endurance, and mobility/stability. However, the demand required by each mode of training within each individual training program will be different. Taking the time to understand what demand is required (e.g., time, strength, endurance, etc.) will be important when setting up an exercise program to parallel the goal.  

            The depth at which you want to achieve your goals will not be the same as others. This means you need to take a step back and write down what your exercise goals are. Then listen to people who have accomplished those goals, read and watch information on exercise coaches that have helped those type of individuals, or take a leap of faith and hire an exercise coach to help you. Watch any documentary about elite athletes or successful entrepreneurs like Bill Gates. They establish a goal and they put together a program that aligns with that goal. The hard part is that it will take time. The renowned strength coach Dan John Once said, “the goal is to keep the goal the goal”.  

 

So, take a step back and assess what your goals are and ask yourself these questions:

What is my goal?

Why is this my goal?

What will it take to reach that goal?

How will I implement the key modes of training (e.g., strength training, endurance training, and mobility training) into my weekly routine to reach my goal?

 

Once you have established some depth to your goal, you will be able to start to create some awareness to what it will take to reach those goals.

For more exercises check out our YouTube Channel:

Cystic Fibrosis Fitness Institute 

 

 

 

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High-Intensity Interval Training: Is It Really Worth It?

High-Intensity Interval Training: Is It Really Worth It?

High-Intensity Interval Training: Is It Really Worth It?

          It was about a year ago when I watched an exercise video a colleague had sent me. The fitness enthusiast filmed a HIIT training workout for their followers. The workout consisted of various lower body weight plyometric based exercises. It had only been a couple of rounds in when the individual jumped in the air, landed and immediately dropped. Everything came to an abrupt haul. The motivation to push others into the next jump was quickly shifted to protection mode. The individual was curled up in a ball, tensing every muscle as if their body went in to protective mode to shield anything else from occurring. In the end, it looked like the individual had injured their lower leg when landing.

        High-intensity interval training, or for short HIIT, is an approach taken to improve aerobic capacity. Interval training consisting of short bouts of higher intensity work, supplemented with lower intensity rest. It has become a popular approach when time is limited. For instance, research has shown that completing a 10-minute HIIT training workout can have similar effects that training for 30-minutes has (Gibala et al., 2006). Now, there are many variables that this is dependent on, but the bigger picture is work harder for less time and reap the similar benefits.

        HIIT has shown to be an effective form for conditioning when time plays a factor in exercise. Over the years, high intensity interval training has been a field of interest in pulmonary diseases and rightfully so. Individuals battling pulmonary conditions spend a lot of time taking care of their health. From respiratory treatments to clinic and hospital visits, time always plays a factor. Why not see if HIIT training can be a complimentary approach when you don’t have a lot of time? This all lines up, however we have to think beyond the time allocated to work out and also look at the exercises and their impact on the whole body and not just the acute cardiovascular and peripheral muscle affects. Unfortunately, some people are unaware of the aftermath it can leave on the body if not properly programmed.

         So, this leaves us with the question of, “why did this person’s leg get injured?” They were only performing body weight plyometrics. There was no external load, so you wouldn’t think it would be that big of a stressor to injure them. In all reality, there are numerous variables, so many that we could sit over a cup coffee and discuss them all, but I am going to focus on the impact HIIT training has on the musculoskeletal system and why plyometric based HIIT training isn’t something you just program because of the positive benefits it has on the lungs and heart. We must think beyond the acute satisfaction we get after a brutal sweat pouring workout that HIIT hits you with and think about what it is doing to the body over a longer period of time. It is not what we do today that defines us, but it is our choices over the course of our lives that defines who we are. Why do people always talk about creating a legacy before they die? Because, it leaves a mark on time that is more powerful and impactful than one acute accomplishment. The same goes for HIIT training.

         The goal for those seeking to maximize lung function and aerobic capacity should be looked at beyond the initial conditioning component. What people don’t tend to realize is the magnitude of stress that plyometric based HIIT training has on the musculoskeletal system. The compression forces on the hip joint during the support phase of walking can reach 3 to 4 times body weight (Hall, 2011). If you weigh 100lbs, that is 300lbs to 400lbs of compression forces at the hip joint. We haven’t even factored in acceleration and plyometric based forces.

         When you start to increase the speed and power of the movements forces on the joints increase. This can lead to 9 times body weight in forces placed on the body during each repetition. Now, to really grasp how much stress your body is undergoing you will have to factor in the type of exercises, a persons’ movement mechanics, height, weight, etc. It is not so black and white but if the exercises involve ballistic based exercises than you can guarantee they are going to apply a lot of forces to the joints. If the body doesn’t have the adequate musculoskeletal tensile strength required for the demand or task, then an acute or chronic injury will occur. This is what you can assume happened to the fitness enthusiast or trainer who ended up with an injured lower leg. The body wasn’t able to handle the ground reaction forces and an acute injury occurred.

         It is no secret that individuals with pulmonary conditions can have decreased muscle mass, bone mineral density, and decreased exercise capacity (Cielen, Maes, & Gayan-Ramirez, 2014). Improving musculoskeletal strength in individuals fighting pulmonary conditions should be at the upmost importance in exercise programming. Strength training not only improves mechanical muscle function, it can also improve postural stability and control, increases bone mineral density, and connective tissue strength (Hong & Kim, 2018). All important factors in improving health in pulmonary conditions, but also important in reducing the forces and stressors placed on the body during HIIT training.

          The structure of the muscle fibers, the angle of the fascicles within the muscle, and the metabolic structures of the fibers affect how force production is determined and produced. The ability to take a mass, overcome inertia and create force production is a multifactorial process. Force production is mass times acceleration which means that in a situation where maximal effort is required, there must be a high rate of neuromuscular output and musculoskeletal strength and control. Individuals with COPD share commonalities with individual’s cystic fibrosis. Dyspnoea, exercise intolerance, deconditioning, decreased bone mineral density, decreased muscle weakness and skeletal muscle tissue mass are common (Divangahi et al., 2009).

        The linear growth and decline in growth over time in pulmonary conditions is a multi-factorial equation that is very important to factor in when HIIT training is being considered. Hussey et al. (2002) observed a significant decrease in peak torque and peripheral muscle strength in CF. Moco et. al. (2012) found “muscle-related abnormalities in oxygen metabolism,” in individuals with CF. As the demand for effort increases, the body’s ability to maintain the biomechanical advantage in intervals declines increasing the stress placed on the body and just another reason why creating foundational support through strength training is very important.

         Another factor that is not often considered is rest period between max exertion plyometric. HIIT training utilizes neurological demand at a different rate and frequency compared to aerobic training. The force exerted during a movement is dependent on the amount of motor neurons excited, the mechanical advantage, and the firing rate frequency. During plyometric intervals this would required an increase in motor unit recruitment and increase in neuron excitability. This influx causes a change in metabolic concentration and over time increases fatigue and decreases the quality of movement.

         We all have heard quality over quantity and in the case of HIIT training for someone who doesn’t regularly strength train, that concept is even more important. Think of the 1st jump squat in a 20 second interval and the last jump squat in that same interval. The height, acceleration, and biomechanics respectively will not be the same. You will even see that your feet do not land in the same place at the end. The body gets tired, which also increases the stress factors to the body.

          So, you have to ask yourself. What is the goal? How much time do you have? And what do you have available to use to reach that goal? If you read this and realize you do not incorporate strength training into your workouts and are going to start, but don’t want to get away from HIIT training because you enjoy it; don’t worry, you don’t have to. Think about reducing ground reaction or foot contact. For example, hoping on a bike and doing interval training is great because there are no ground reaction forces being applied. Kettlebell swings are probably one of the best to transition from the bike to the introduction of foot contact because you are able to start building a ground force capacity. The whole idea and concept is to build a strong musculoskeletal foundation before integrating plyometric HIIT training. There are too many situations where people put the cart before the horse. They may get away with doing HIIT training for a period of time but it always shows its impact on the body in some form or fashion when it becomes too much. The negative impacts can be revealed through aches and pains within the joints, stiffness in the back, and/but not limited to zombie like unregulated aggravation from neurological fatigue.

         HIIT training is a beneficial approach to improving aerobic capacity, and potentially lung function. It has been used as a tool for airway clearance and often used to burn unwanted stress. There is no getting around the fact that HIIT training requires strength, control, and movement frequencies that cannot be sustained or maintained without adequate musculoskeletal strength and recovery. There are many ways to integrate HIIT training and the evaluation of the risk to reward of integrating plyometric HIIT training when ground reactions force volume is high.  Progress interval training accordingly with not only cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary capacity in mind, but also with the body’s foundational strength and biomechanical capabilities required to perform a task and eventually reach the target goal.

References

 Cielen, N., Maes, K., & Gayan-Ramirez, G. (2014). Musculoskeletal disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BioMed Research International.

Divangahi, M., Balghi, H., Danialou, G., Comtois, A. S., Demoule, A., Ernest, S., Haston, C., Robert, R., Hanrahan, J. W., Radzioch, D., … Petrof, B. J. (2009). Lack of CFTR in  skeletal muscle predisposes to muscle wasting and diaphragm muscle pump failure in  cystic fibrosis mice. PLoS genetics5(7).

Gibala, M. J., Little, J. P., van Essen, M., Wilkin, G. P., Burgomaster, K. A., Safdar, A., Raha, S., & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2006). Short-term sprint interval versus traditional  endurance  training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise  performance. The Journal of Physiology575(Pt 3), 901–911.

Hall, S. J. (6th e.d.). (2011). Basic Biomechanics. McGraw-Hill.

Hong, A. R., & Kim, S. W. (2018). Effects of resistance exercise on bone health. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33(4), 435–444.

 

 

 

 Check out our YouTube channel for even more content.

Cystic Fibrosis Fitness Institute 

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The Importance of Cardiopulmonary Testing in Pulmonary Diseases

The Importance of Cardiopulmonary Testing in Pulmonary Diseases

The Importance of Cardiopulmonary Testing in Pulmonary Diseases

        The primary aim of exercising is to improve quality of life, strength, endurance, and/or movement capabilities. Integrating a resistance and cardiovascular training program into a client’s lifestyle can improve posture, respiration, musculoskeletal strength and cardiovascular endurance, which may help improve lung function, motivation, adherence to exercising and overall quality of life. While research has shown that exercising facilitates improvements across many health factors, what isn’t exactly clear is what intensity, duration, frequency, and volume (performance baselines) are appropriate to train at when faced with a pulmonary condition. This is because standard predicted equations are based on healthy subjects.

           It is critically important to monitor and understand the impact exercise training has on lung function, skeletal muscle strength, cardiopulmonary ventilation, cardiovascular endurance, neuromuscular facilitation, and quality of life in pulmonary diseases. Subjective and/or objective test needs to be administered in order to monitor these variables. The problem however, arises in the fact that pulmonary diseases don’t present themselves the same way in each individual. There are commonalities, but there isn’t an absolute, especially in exercise capacity. This is why performance testing is important in understanding exercise capacity.

 

          Exercise specialists and researchers are challenged to evaluate the optimal work to rest ratio to increase exercise tolerance without sustaining higher lactate accumulation and/or cardiac and pulmonary strain in pulmonary disease.  Performance tests are great for connecting objective measures to an individual’s physical fitness. Exercise testing is imperative to understand capabilities, but not everyone will be able to use the same parameters. During exercise, oxygen consumption can increase 10 to 15 times resting values (Joyner & Casey, 2015). As exercise demand increases, respiration is exhausted due to plateau in tidal volume (VT) expansion.  In healthy individuals, O2- pulse parallels heart rate (HR), with heart rate having a sharper increase if deconditioning is present. There should be a linear association between the HR with oxygen consumption (VO2) in response to exercise to a certain degree. This is a normal cardiovascular response unless cardiac or pulmonary vascular disease are also present.

           The ability for an individual to overcome inertia and create force production during a performance test is a multifactorial process. It takes many components (i.e. neurological, circulatory, metabolic, respiratory, skeletal systems etc.) to fight against gravity to generate chemical energy and shuttle it into mechanical energy. As the duration at which mechanical energy is needed there is an increase for oxygen to supply that demand. In performance tests that focus on oxygen consumption, limiting factors that are seen earlier in individuals with pulmonary diseases compared to healthy individuals are a decrease in pulmonary diffusion capacity, cardiac output, oxygen carrying capacity, and peripheral oxygen diffusion.

           Maximal heart rate is one of several standard predicted measures used in health and science application and is established based on healthy individuals. Individuals with pulmonary diseases commonly have to fight against a decreased lung function, pulmonary exacerbations, dyspnea, chronic coughing, decreased immune system, decreased maturation growth, and decreased skeletal muscle mass. All at which are not considered in standard predicted equations. The baselines and thresholds also can be considered too high to be useful for predicting exercise estimations and valid outcomes based on healthy individual outcomes. Further evidence on the impact exercise has on the pulmonary diseases is needed to create clarity and standards to quality approaches to exercise training. This is why it is important to collect cardiopulmonary metrics. This includes but not limited to VO2max, heart rate, blood pressure, pulmonary function test, heart rate reserve or VO2 reserve, Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE) and/or Borg Scale.  This allows the professional to establish metrics based on the individual and not on standard predicted measures for healthy individuals.

Incremental exercise increases cardiopulmonary demand. Individuals with respiratory disease have ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) inequality altering ventilation baseline demands. Ventilation-perfusion ratio is the amount of air that reaches the alveoli divide by the amount of blood that flows through the pulmonary capillaries in the lungs. On average there is 4 to 6 L/min liters of air entering the respiratory tract with 5 liters of blood flowing through the capillaries every minute (V/Q ratio of 0.8-1) (Lumb & Horner, 2019).

 

 In individuals with respiratory disease, O2 conduction and exchange is impeded because of chronic inflammation, chronic infections, airway obstructions, necrotic tissue, leading to faster increase in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. As a result, cardiopulmonary exercise testing in individuals with respiratory disease have shown to have lower than expected peak work rate and a VO2peak that is below the age-predicted norms (Parazzi et al. 2015). The initial stages of exercise testing tend to have a normal value, but as time under stress increases there is a faster decline compared to healthy individuals. The result of overventilation within compensatory areas of the lungs, minute ventilation (VE) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) which normally declines and becomes negative in healthy individuals, increases and stays constant with individuals with respiratory disease (VE/VCO2). The disproportion between VA/Q is all interdependent on the severity of the respiratory disease.  Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in individuals with a respiratory disease has shown to have lower than expected peak work rate and a VO2peak that is below the age-predicted norms.

            In healthy lungs, gas exchange is directed and distributed throughout the alveoli within the lungs. Gas exchange in respiratory disease is impeded because of, but not limited to, chronic inflammation, chronic infections, airway obstructions, and lung necrosis.  This causes gas exchange abnormalities arising from alveolar and capillary damage. At rest, a healthy individual’s physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) is estimated to be 0.30-0.40 and declines to ≤ 0.20 during exercise. In respiratory disease, VD/VT tends to be elevated at rest and doesn’t decline at rest like healthy individuals. With an increase in the ventilatory CO2 and a lower ventilatory reserve, dyspnea and muscle fatigue set in earlier. Thin et. al. (2004) looked at airway dead-space during exercise in patients who had been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis and compared them to normal healthy subjects. Six patients who had been free of acute pulmonary exacerbations for two months, went through a four-stage exercise protocol that looked at submaximal steady-state ventilation. The exercise protocol progressively increased each stage from rest, up to the 40W. The last and final stage was determined based on the participants third stage ventilator responses at 40W. Bipolar electrocardiogram and ear lobe pulse oximetry were recorded throughout testing.  At rest, there wasn’t a difference in ventilator dead-space in the CF group compared to healthy individuals. During exercise however, there was a higher respiratory frequency in the CF group compared to healthy subjects causing a disproportional ratio of airway dead-space to ventilation compared to healthy individuals. The increase in unproductive ventilation increases ventilation to maintain normal PaCO2 and PaO2. This results in increased VE/VCO2 and VE/VO2 and fail to decrease VD/VT at rest and during exercise. Thin et. al. (2004) study the results showed that patients with cystic fibrosis have to work harder to sustain adequate gas exchange resulting in elevated airway dead-space and decreased utilization of airway ventilation.

 

         Understanding the full health history and using testing measures that are appropriate to the individual are the best approach to creating individualized performance outcomes. Using the standard predicted equations to determine intensity, duration, frequency, and/or volume can be misleading in respiratory disease. Individualizing the metrics by using performance testing can help quantify the outcomes and information to help produce proper results. If you want to truly make an impact on an individual’s ability to exercise, test what matters and understand the general guidelines created, but do not see them as an absolute metric to exercise performance in pulmonary conditions Not everyone’s exercise capacity is the same, so not everyone should be measured under the same standard equations.

 

 

 

References

 

Joyner, M. J., & Casey, D. P. (2015). Regulation of increased blood flow (hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: a hierarchy of competing physiological needs. Physiological Reviews95(2), 549–601.

 

 Lumb, A. B. & Horner, D. (2nd ed.). (2019). Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia. Elsevier Inc.

 

 Parazzi, P. L., Marson, F. A., Ribeiro, M. A., de Almeida, C. C., Martins, L. C., Paschoal, I. A., Toro, A. A., Schivinski, C. I., & Ribeiro, J. D. (2015). Ventilatory abnormalities in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing the submaximal treadmill exercise test. BMC  Pulmonary Medicine15, 63.

 

Thin, A., Dodd, J., Gallagher, C., Fitzgerald, M., & Mcloughlin, P. (2004). Effects of respiratory rate on airway deadspace ventilation during exercise in cystic fibrosis. Respiratory Medicine, (98), 1063-1070

 

 

For more exercises check out our YouTube Channel: Cystic Fibrosis Fitness Institute 

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Tips to Build Home Exercise Equipment and Workouts

Tips to Build Home Exercise Equipment and Workouts

Tips to Build Home Exercise Equipment and Workouts

There has been a flood of exercise content these last few weeks. It is great to see trainers, coaches, and experts in the field of science giving back to the community. There are many ways to exercise and we have seen many different approaches to training. We believe that the combination of strength, cardio, and mobility/stability training throughout the week is a great recipe for physical fitness success. If you increase the demand resistance to the muscle, it will have to adapt and get stronger. Maintaining the strength you have is an important component to your mental and physical health.

One present limitation is that only some people have access to exercise equipment, such as dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, resistance bands etc., that help to increase the demand applied to the body to improve strength. However, not everyone has the luxury of going into their garage and throwing around some weights. This can get hard when you are trying to maintain the strength you have created. So, we thought we would give you some insight into some ways you can make your own home exercise equipment that can give you a little more resistance during your workouts.

Check it Out

 

Creating your own Dumbbell

 

Upper Body Exercises

Core Exercises 

After you have created your home-exercise equipment, check out our home exercises and a workout to go along with them. This will allow you to change up the stimulus, which could promote, or help you maintain, the strength you have.

Have fun!

Workout 1

Workout 2 

For more exercises check out our YouTube Channel:

Cystic Fibrosis Fitness Institute 

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